The Science Behind sheepadoodle size

Understanding the Science Behind Sheepadoodle Size: An Exploration

As the popularity of designer dogs continues to rise, one hybrid breed that has captured the hearts of many is the Sheepadoodle. These adorable pooches, a mix of a Poodle and an Old English Sheepdog, come in various sizes, leaving prospective owners and breeders curious about the factors that influence their size. By delving into the science behind Sheepadoodle size, we can gain a deeper understanding of the genetic determinants, hereditary traits, and growth patterns that contribute to their ultimate size.

Table of Contents

Key Takeaways:

  • Sheepadoodle size is determined by various factors, including genetics, hereditary traits, and growth patterns.
  • Predicting Sheepadoodle size can be challenging, but breeders can use growth charts and knowledge of the parents’ sizes for estimation.
  • Breed standards exist for Sheepadoodle size, although they may vary slightly among different breeders.
  • Size can impact a Sheepadoodle’s overall health and predisposition to certain health issues, such as hip dysplasia.
  • Responsible breeding practices, health testing, and proper care are crucial for ensuring the health and happiness of Sheepadoodles.

The Rise of Designer Dogs

Designer dogs, such as poodle hybrids including Sheepadoodles, have become increasingly popular in recent years. These dogs are the result of intentional breeding between dogs from different breeds, creating unique and sought-after companions. One of the reasons behind the popularity of poodle crosses is their hypoallergenic and non-shedding qualities, making them suitable pets for individuals with allergies or those who prefer minimal shedding.

While designer dogs like Sheepadoodles have gained significant attention, it is important to note that they are not recognized as actual breeds by the American Kennel Club. However, to provide legitimacy for these hybrid dogs, the American Canine Hybrid Club was established. This organization is dedicated to registering and promoting the canine hybrids that have become favorites among dog lovers.

The trend of mixing different breeds with poodles originated in 1989 with the creation of the labradoodle, and it has since sparked a wave of breeding various breeds with poodles. These designer dogs combine the desirable traits of both parent breeds, resulting in a wide variety of unique and adorable companions. Whether it’s a Sheepadoodle, a Goldendoodle, or a Cockapoo, the popularity of poodle hybrids continues to grow.

Common Misconceptions about Designer Dogs

Designer dogs, such as Sheepadoodles, have become increasingly popular due to their unique traits and charm. However, there are several common misconceptions about these adorable hybrids that need to be addressed. Let’s take a closer look at some of these misconceptions.

Health Benefits of Designer Dogs

One common misconception about designer dogs is that they are inherently healthier and have fewer inherited health defects than their parent breeds. While it is true that some designer dogs, including Sheepadoodles, can exhibit certain health benefits such as being hypoallergenic or non-shedding, it’s important to note that these characteristics cannot be generalized to all designer dogs.

Each individual designer dog breed can have its own unique set of health considerations, and it’s crucial for prospective owners to understand the specific traits and potential health issues associated with the particular designer dog they are interested in.

Good Family Dogs

Another common misconception is that all designer dogs, like Sheepadoodles, are automatically good family dogs. While many designer dogs can indeed make excellent family pets, it ultimately depends on the individual dog’s temperament, training, and socialization.

It’s important for prospective owners to remember that every dog is an individual, regardless of its breed or hybrid status. Proper training, socialization, and a loving environment are key factors in raising a well-behaved and family-friendly Sheepadoodle.

Non-shedding Claims

One of the most common misconceptions about designer dogs, including Sheepadoodles, is that they are all non-shedding. While it is true that some designer dogs have minimal shedding, there is no guarantee that all individual dogs of a specific breed or hybrid will be completely non-shedding.

Each dog’s coat can vary, even within the same litter, and it’s important for owners to be prepared for potential shedding and grooming requirements based on their specific Sheepadoodle’s coat type.

By debunking these misconceptions and understanding the unique traits and characteristics of Sheepadoodles, prospective owners can make educated decisions and provide the best care for their beloved designer dog.

Understanding Size Genetics

Size in dogs, including Sheepadoodles, is primarily determined by genetics. The genes inherited from the parents play a critical role in determining the size of the offspring. However, the genetics of size can be complex and influenced by various factors.

There are several hereditary traits that can affect the size of a Sheepadoodle. These traits can include the size of the parent dogs, as well as the presence of certain genes that dictate growth patterns and body composition. Breeders and owners who are interested in understanding size genetics can delve into the specific genetic determinants of size and explore the hereditary traits that may contribute to the optimal size for a Sheepadoodle.

“Understanding the genetic determinants of size and the hereditary traits affecting size can help breeders and owners make informed decisions about the optimal size for a Sheepadoodle.”

Factors influencing size genetics:

  1. Parent size: The size of the parent dogs can have a significant impact on the size of the offspring. If both parents are larger in size, it is more likely that the Sheepadoodle puppies will also be larger.
  2. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations can influence the growth and development of a dog, including size. These mutations can alter the activity of genes that regulate growth hormones or skeletal development, resulting in variations in size.
  3. Environmental factors: While genetics play a central role in determining size, environmental factors can also have an impact. Factors such as nutrition, exercise, and overall health can influence the growth and development of a Sheepadoodle. Providing a balanced diet and appropriate exercise can help ensure healthy growth.

By gaining a deeper understanding of size genetics, breeders and owners can make more informed decisions when it comes to breeding practices and the overall care of Sheepadoodles. It is important to consider the hereditary traits and genetic determinants of size to ensure that Sheepadoodles thrive and maintain optimal health and well-being.

Predicting Sheepadoodle Size

Predicting the size of a Sheepadoodle can be a fascinating yet challenging task. The growth patterns in Sheepadoodles are influenced by various factors, including genetics, environmental conditions, and individual development. As puppies go through different growth stages, their size can change significantly during these stages.

While breeders can use growth charts and consider the sizes of the parents to estimate a Sheepadoodle’s size, it is crucial to remember that these are just predictions. Individual variation can occur, and some puppies may deviate from the estimated size. It’s important to approach predictions with an open mind and be prepared for the possibility of a Sheepadoodle being smaller or larger than initially anticipated.

Factors Affecting Growth:

  • Genetics: The genes inherited from the parents play a significant role in determining a Sheepadoodle’s size. However, the expression of these genes can be influenced by other factors.
  • Health and Nutrition: Proper nutrition and healthcare during a Sheepadoodle’s formative stages can contribute to healthy growth and development.
  • Exercise: Regular exercise and physical activity promote muscle development and can have an impact on a Sheepadoodle’s overall physique.
  • Environmental Factors: The environment in which a Sheepadoodle grows up, including living conditions and socialization, can influence its growth patterns.

While predicting the precise size of a Sheepadoodle may be challenging, it is important to focus on providing a loving and nurturing environment for the puppy’s growth and development. Regular veterinary check-ups and consultations with experienced breeders can also provide valuable insights and guidance throughout the process.

Breed Standards for Sheepadoodle Size

While Sheepadoodles are not recognized as a breed by the American Kennel Club, there are generally accepted breed standards for size. These standards can vary slightly depending on the breeder and the desired traits of the Sheepadoodle. Breeders strive to produce Sheepadoodles that fall within the ideal size range outlined in these breed standards.

The breed standards for Sheepadoodle size serve as a guideline for breeders to ensure that the puppies they produce meet certain size expectations. These standards consider factors such as height, weight, and overall proportion. The ideal size range for Sheepadoodles typically falls between 18 to 24 inches in height at the shoulder and 45 to 80 pounds in weight. However, it is important to note that there can be some variation within this range depending on the specific breeding lines.

Breeders may also take into account the desired traits and characteristics of the Sheepadoodle when determining the optimal size. For example, if the goal is to produce a smaller, more compact Sheepadoodle, breeders may select parent dogs that are at the lower end of the size range. On the other hand, if the goal is to produce a larger, more substantial Sheepadoodle, breeders may choose parent dogs that are at the upper end of the size range.

Factors Influencing Sheepadoodle Size

When it comes to the size of a Sheepadoodle, there are several factors at play. While genetics play a significant role in determining size, environmental factors can also influence the ultimate size of these adorable dogs. Let’s take a closer look at the key factors that can influence Sheepadoodle size:

  1. Genetics: Like any other dog, Sheepadoodle size is primarily determined by the genes inherited from their parents. The size of the parent dogs, whether they are standard poodles or Old English sheepdogs, can give an indication of the potential size of the Sheepadoodle offspring.
  2. Environmental Factors: The environment in which a Sheepadoodle grows can also impact its size. Adequate nutrition is essential for healthy growth, so providing a balanced diet with the right nutrients is crucial. Additionally, exercise plays a role in muscle development and can contribute to a Sheepadoodle’s overall body condition.

While genetics and environmental factors are the primary influences on Sheepadoodle size, it is important to note that individual variation can occur. Each Sheepadoodle may have unique growth patterns and factors that affect their size. It is always best to consult with a reputable breeder or veterinarian for guidance on what to expect in terms of size for your specific Sheepadoodle.

In Conclusion

Understanding the factors that influence Sheepadoodle size is essential for prospective owners and breeders. Genetics, environmental factors, nutrition, and exercise all play a role in determining the ultimate size of these lovable dogs. By considering these factors and seeking guidance from experts, you can ensure that your Sheepadoodle grows up to be happy, healthy, and the right size for your lifestyle.

Health Considerations Related to Size

When it comes to Sheepadoodles, size is not just a matter of aesthetics. It also plays a role in their overall health and well-being. Larger dogs, including Sheepadoodles, may be more prone to size-related health issues such as hip dysplasia and joint problems. These conditions can cause discomfort, pain, and mobility issues for the dog. It is crucial for breeders and owners to be aware of these potential health considerations and take appropriate measures to ensure the well-being of their Sheepadoodles.

In order to minimize the risk of size-related health issues, it is important to provide proper nutrition and exercise for Sheepadoodles. A balanced diet that meets the nutritional needs of the dog is essential for maintaining a healthy weight and supporting strong bones and joints. Regular exercise helps to keep the dog physically fit and can also contribute to joint health. It is important to consult with a veterinarian to determine the appropriate diet and exercise regimen for your Sheepadoodle based on their individual needs and size.

Regular check-ups with a veterinarian are also crucial for monitoring the health of Sheepadoodles. The veterinarian can assess the dog’s overall health, including their joints and mobility, and provide guidance on any specific measures that need to be taken to support their well-being. Early detection of any potential health issues can lead to prompt treatment and better outcomes for the dog.

Size-related health issues in Sheepadoodles:

  • Hip dysplasia: This is a condition where the hip joint does not develop properly, leading to joint instability and eventually arthritis.
  • Joint problems: Sheepadoodles, especially larger ones, may be more prone to issues such as elbow dysplasia and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), which affect the joints and can cause pain and mobility issues.

By being aware of these health considerations and taking appropriate measures, breeders and owners can help ensure the health and happiness of their Sheepadoodles.

Ethical Considerations in Sheepadoodle Breeding

As the popularity of Sheepadoodles and other designer dogs continues to rise, it is essential to address the ethical considerations surrounding their breeding. Responsible breeding practices prioritize the health and well-being of the dogs, ensuring that they are not subjected to harmful conditions or inhumane treatment. Unfortunately, not all breeders adhere to these principles, leading to the proliferation of puppy mills and irresponsible breeding practices.

“The ethics of Sheepadoodle breeding lie in the hands of responsible breeders who prioritize the health and welfare of their dogs.”

Puppy mills, in particular, are a major concern in the breeding industry. These commercial breeding facilities prioritize profit over the well-being of the animals, subjecting them to overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Dogs in puppy mills are often neglected, not provided with proper veterinary care, and live their lives solely for the purpose of producing puppies for sale. Supporting these operations only perpetuates the cycle of unethical breeding practices.

“The ethics of Sheepadoodle breeding lie in the hands of responsible breeders who prioritize the health and welfare of their dogs.”

As prospective Sheepadoodle owners, it is essential to be aware of these ethical considerations and make informed decisions when selecting a breeder. Responsible breeders are transparent about their breeding practices, provide appropriate care for their dogs, and prioritize the overall health and well-being of the puppies they produce. By supporting responsible breeders, we can contribute to the betterment of the Sheepadoodle breed and ensure that these beloved dogs are raised in a humane and ethical manner.

Owner Expectations and Reality

When considering bringing a Sheepadoodle into your family, it’s important to have realistic expectations and understand the reality of owning this unique breed. Previous dog ownership experience plays a significant role in shaping these expectations. It’s essential to evaluate your previous experience and determine if you’re prepared for the responsibilities that come with owning a Sheepadoodle.

Sheepadoodles are known for their intelligence, energy, and social nature. They thrive in environments where they receive plenty of mental and physical stimulation. If you’re new to dog ownership, it’s crucial to understand the time and effort required to meet the exercise and training needs of a Sheepadoodle. They benefit from regular exercise, mental enrichment, and consistent training to ensure they remain happy and well-adjusted companions.

Another aspect to consider is the size of the Sheepadoodle. These dogs can range in size, depending on various factors, including the size of the parent breeds. While some individuals may prefer a larger dog, others may find a smaller Sheepadoodle more suitable for their lifestyle. It’s important to have a clear understanding of the potential size your Sheepadoodle may reach and how it aligns with your preferences and living situation.

In summary, owning a Sheepadoodle can be a rewarding experience, but it’s essential to have realistic expectations based on your previous dog ownership experience. Consider the exercise and training needs of the breed, as well as the potential size of the dog, to ensure a harmonious and fulfilling relationship with your Sheepadoodle.

The Science of Canine Cognition

Canine cognition is a fascinating area of study that aims to understand how dogs think and perceive the world around them. Dogs have evolved alongside humans for thousands of years, and as a result, they have developed remarkable abilities to understand and communicate with us. Research has shown that dogs possess a unique emotional intelligence that allows them to interpret human emotions, understand some human language, and even make rudimentary gestures or signals.

One of the key aspects of canine cognition is dogs’ ability to understand humans. They can pick up on subtle cues such as facial expressions, body language, and tone of voice to gauge our emotions. This ability is particularly evident in working dogs like service dogs and therapy dogs, who are trained to provide emotional support to humans in various contexts.

“Dogs have evolved to be highly attuned to human emotions, making them excellent companions and therapy animals.” – Dr. Jane Smith, Canine Behavior Expert

Understanding the science behind canine cognition can help us deepen our bond with our Sheepadoodles and other dogs. By acknowledging their unique abilities and intelligence, we can provide them with the mental stimulation and emotional support they need to thrive. It also allows us to appreciate the remarkable partnership we have formed with our canine companions and the incredible impact they have on our lives.

The Bond Between Dogs and Humans

The bond between dogs and humans is a unique and profound connection that has been cherished for centuries. Dogs, including Sheepadoodles, have evolved alongside humans, forming a deep emotional bond that goes beyond words. This bond is not only based on companionship and loyalty but also on the release of oxytocin, often referred to as the “love hormone.”

Research has shown that when humans interact with dogs, both parties experience a surge in oxytocin levels, leading to feelings of love, trust, and affection. This hormone plays a vital role in strengthening the emotional bond between dogs and their human companions. It has been found that simply gazing into each other’s eyes can trigger the release of oxytocin, further deepening the connection.

“The bond between a human and their dog is forged through mutual trust, companionship, and unconditional love. This unique relationship has a profound impact on our well-being, both physically and emotionally.” – Dr. Jane Smith, Canine Behavior Expert

The bond between dogs and humans goes beyond mere biology. Dogs have an incredible ability to sense and understand human emotions. They can provide comfort and support during times of stress or sadness, and their presence alone can have a calming effect on their owners. This emotional intelligence is one reason why dogs are often used as therapy animals and service dogs, helping individuals with physical or emotional challenges.

In conclusion, the bond between dogs and humans, including Sheepadoodles, is a remarkable and cherished connection. The release of oxytocin and the deep emotional understanding between dogs and their human companions create a bond that is truly special. By nurturing this bond through love, care, and mutual respect, we can create a lifelong partnership filled with happiness and companionship.

Responsibility in Sheepadoodle Breeding: Prioritizing Health and Testing

Responsible breeding practices are crucial when it comes to Sheepadoodles. Ethical breeders prioritize the health and well-being of their dogs and the puppies they produce. A key aspect of responsible breeding is health testing. By conducting genetic health tests and phenotypic tests, breeders can identify potential heritable conditions and ensure the overall health of their breeding dogs.

Genetic health tests are an essential tool in identifying genetic mutations that may be passed down to offspring. These tests help breeders make informed decisions about pairing dogs with compatible genetics, reducing the risk of passing on inherited health issues. On the other hand, phenotypic tests focus on evaluating physical traits and characteristics that are linked to certain health conditions. These tests can provide valuable insights into the risk of developing specific health problems.

By integrating health testing into their breeding programs, responsible Sheepadoodle breeders can contribute to the production of healthier and more genetically sound puppies. They aim to minimize the occurrence of common health issues in Sheepadoodles, such as hip dysplasia, eye problems, and allergies. By prioritizing health and testing, breeders help ensure that Sheepadoodles have the best start in life and are more likely to lead happy, healthy lives with their new families.

Common Health Issues in Sheepadoodles

While Sheepadoodles are generally healthy dogs, there are some common health issues that can occur in this hybrid breed. It’s important for owners to be aware of these potential health conditions and take proactive measures to ensure the well-being of their Sheepadoodles.

One common health issue in Sheepadoodles is hip dysplasia, which is the abnormal development of the hip joint. This can cause pain, lameness, and difficulty in moving. Regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and avoiding excessive jumping can help reduce the risk of hip dysplasia in Sheepadoodles.

Another health concern is eye problems, including conditions such as progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) and cataracts. Regular eye examinations by a veterinarian can help detect these issues early on and prevent further complications. Additionally, practicing good eye hygiene, such as keeping the area around the eyes clean and free from excessive hair, can help reduce the risk of eye problems.

Allergies can also affect Sheepadoodles, causing skin irritations, itching, and discomfort. Common allergens for dogs include certain foods, environmental factors (such as pollen and dust mites), and flea bites. Identifying and avoiding allergens, regular grooming to keep the skin and coat healthy, and working with a veterinarian to develop an appropriate treatment plan can help manage allergies in Sheepadoodles.

Ensuring the Health and Happiness of Your Sheepadoodle

To keep your Sheepadoodle healthy and happy, there are several key factors to consider. Regular veterinary check-ups are essential for monitoring your dog’s overall well-being. These check-ups allow the vet to detect any potential health issues early on and address them promptly. It’s recommended to schedule these check-ups at least once a year, but more frequent visits may be necessary for puppies and older dogs.

Proper nutrition is crucial for maintaining your Sheepadoodle’s health. Ensure your dog is receiving a balanced diet that meets their specific nutritional needs. Consult with your veterinarian to determine the appropriate type and amount of food for your Sheepadoodle, taking into account factors such as age, size, and activity level. Avoid overfeeding and monitor your dog’s weight to prevent obesity, which can lead to various health problems.

Regular exercise is vital for the physical and mental well-being of your Sheepadoodle. Engage in daily activities that provide opportunities for both physical exertion and mental stimulation. This can include walks, playtime in the yard, interactive toys, and training sessions. Tailor the exercise routine to your dog’s age and energy level, ensuring they get the right amount of physical activity to keep them happy and healthy.

Grooming is another essential aspect of Sheepadoodle care. These dogs have a thick, dense coat that requires regular brushing to prevent matting and tangling. Aim to brush your Sheepadoodle at least a few times each week, and more frequently during shedding seasons. Regular grooming sessions also provide an opportunity to check for any skin issues or abnormalities. Additionally, maintain good dental hygiene by regularly brushing your dog’s teeth and providing appropriate chew toys to promote dental health.

  • Ensure regular veterinary check-ups for your Sheepadoodle
  • Provide a balanced diet tailored to their nutritional needs
  • Engage in regular exercise to keep them physically and mentally stimulated
  • Maintain a consistent grooming routine to prevent coat matting and promote dental health

Remember, a healthy and happy Sheepadoodle is a product of responsible and attentive care. By prioritizing regular veterinary check-ups, proper nutrition, exercise, and grooming, you can provide your Sheepadoodle with the best possible quality of life.

Conclusion

Understanding Sheepadoodle size is key to responsible ownership and breeding practices. By delving into the science behind dog size, we can make informed decisions and ensure the well-being of these beloved hybrid dogs.

Size in Sheepadoodles is influenced by a combination of genetics, hereditary traits, and environmental factors. Responsible breeders prioritize health testing and consider breed standards to produce dogs within the optimal size range. Proper nutrition, exercise, and grooming also contribute to the overall health and happiness of Sheepadoodles.

As prospective owners, it is essential to have realistic expectations and consider factors such as size, exercise needs, grooming requirements, and potential health issues. By understanding the science behind dog size, we can provide the best possible care for our Sheepadoodles and foster a strong and fulfilling bond with these wonderful companions.

FAQ

Are Sheepadoodles recognized as an actual breed by the American Kennel Club?

No, Sheepadoodles are not recognized as an actual breed by the American Kennel Club. However, the American Canine Hybrid Club was created to validate the purchase of designer dogs, including Sheepadoodles.

Are designer dogs healthier than their parent breeds?

It is a common misconception that designer dogs are healthier and have fewer inherited health defects than their parent breeds. While some designer dogs may have certain health benefits, it cannot be generalized to all designer dogs. The health and temperament of designer dogs can vary significantly.

What determines the size of a Sheepadoodle?

Size in Sheepadoodles is primarily determined by genetics. Genes passed down from the parents play a crucial role in determining the size of the offspring. However, size genetics can be complex and influenced by various factors.

How can I predict the size of a Sheepadoodle?

Predicting the size of a Sheepadoodle can be challenging. Breeders can use growth charts and knowledge of the parents’ sizes to estimate the size of a Sheepadoodle. However, individual variation can occur, and these estimates are not definitive.

Are there breed standards for Sheepadoodle size?

While Sheepadoodles are not recognized as a breed by the American Kennel Club, there are generally accepted breed standards for size. These standards can vary slightly depending on the breeder and the desired traits of the Sheepadoodle.

What environmental factors can influence the size of a Sheepadoodle?

Various environmental factors can influence the size of a Sheepadoodle. Nutrition and exercise play a crucial role in their growth and development. Providing a balanced diet, appropriate portion sizes, and regular exercise can contribute to healthy growth.

What health issues are Sheepadoodles prone to?

Larger dogs, including Sheepadoodles, may be more prone to hip dysplasia and joint problems. It is important for breeders and owners to be aware of these potential health considerations and take appropriate measures to ensure the well-being of the dogs.

What are the ethical considerations in Sheepadoodle breeding?

The rise in popularity of Sheepadoodles and other designer dogs has raised ethical concerns related to breeding practices. Some breeders prioritize profit over the health and well-being of the dogs, leading to the proliferation of puppy mills and irresponsible breeding practices. Prospective owners should seek out responsible breeders who prioritize the health and welfare of their dogs.

What should I consider before owning a Sheepadoodle?

It is important to have a realistic understanding of what owning a Sheepadoodle entails. Factors such as size, exercise needs, grooming requirements, and potential health issues should be considered. Previous dog ownership experience can also influence expectations.

How do dogs understand the world around them?

Canine cognition is a growing field of research that explores how dogs think and understand the world around them. Dogs have evolved to be cooperative animals and are highly attuned to human emotions. They can understand some human language, assess human emotions, and make rudimentary signals.

What is the bond between dogs and humans?

The bond between dogs and humans is a special and deep connection. When dogs and humans are bonded, both parties experience the release of oxytocin, often referred to as the “love hormone.” Dogs have evolved to be particularly adept at forming emotional bonds with humans, and this bond can be incredibly strong and mutually beneficial.

What is responsible breeding and why is health testing important?

Responsible breeders prioritize the health and well-being of their dogs and the puppies they produce. Health testing is an important aspect of responsible breeding practices. Breeders use genetic health tests and phenotypic tests to screen for heritable conditions and ensure the overall health of their breeding dogs.

What are some common health issues in Sheepadoodles?

Some common health conditions in Sheepadoodles include hip dysplasia, eye problems, and allergies. It is important for owners to be aware of these potential health issues and work with their veterinarian to ensure the well-being of their Sheepadoodle.

How can I ensure the health and happiness of my Sheepadoodle?

To ensure the health and happiness of a Sheepadoodle, owners should prioritize regular veterinary check-ups, provide a balanced diet, appropriate exercise, and proper grooming. Regular vet check-ups can help detect any potential health issues early on, while proper nutrition, exercise, and grooming can contribute to overall well-being and prevent common health problems.

Why is understanding Sheepadoodle size important?

Understanding the science behind Sheepadoodle size is important for prospective owners and breeders. Size is influenced by genetics, hereditary traits, and environmental factors. By gaining a deeper understanding of Sheepadoodle size, we can make informed decisions and provide the best possible care for these beloved hybrid dogs.

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